1920s CultureAlyssa Jones, Natalie Knoer, Maria Macaluso, Tisha Nacario, and Majesty Williams

The 1920s
In reaction to World War I, the society and culture of Europe, the United States, and many other parts of the world experienced fast changes. In the 1920s, a lot of new technologies helped produce a mass culture shared by millions in the world's developed countries. There were affordable cars, improved telephones, and new forms of media such as motion pictures and radio brought people around the world much closer together than they ever were.

The 1920s was a time of change. There were mostly changes in the women and how they dressed. They were mostly teenagers who went against old Victorian traditions and beliefs. This new woman was a flapper. She smoked, drank, danced, and voted. She cut her hair, wore make-up, and went to parties. She was giddy and risky.
It all started before World War I, the Gibson Girl was at rage. The Gibson Girl wore her hair loosely on top of her head and wore a long straight skirt and a shirt with a high collar. The Gibson Girl was feminine but broke many gender barriers because it allowed her to participate in sports. The Gibson Girl was inspired by Charles Dana Gibson's drawings.external image gibson-girl.jpg
After World War I, women and men were anxious to avoid the rules of society. During this time, younger women did not date until a younger man showed interest in them, but nearly a whole generation of young men had died in the war. These women decided that they were not going to waste their teenage years in loneliness; they were going to enjoy life. They would break away from the old values.
The word "flapper" first appeared in Great Britain. The term described young adolescent women. The word "flapper" entered the United States through literature. Clara Bow, Louise Brooks, Rudolf Valentino, and Josephine Baker were popular influences or stars at the time.
To women, many things became important. In addition to clothing, the face, figure, coiffure, posture, and grooming were important as well. This was the time when cosmetics became a hit. Also, fashion trends were rapidly growing. The fashion trends were usually inspired by female movie stars. As time moves on, the fashion trends change in a blink of an eye.
In the winter, reading was a favorite past time. Authors in the period struggled to understand the rapid changes in society. Even though some authors praised the changes, some expressed disappointment in the passing of the old ways.
F. Scott Fitzgeraldexternal image fitzgerald.jpg

Fitzgerald was born in St. Paul, Minnesota on September 24, 1896. Fitzgerald was an American author. He is most well-known for The Great Gatsby published in 1925. The Great Gatsby is about a history of a man named Jay Gatz and his love Daisy Buchanan. Jay Gatz had an American dream which gave away to the pursuit of money. The book was the essential Jazz Age document. It is considered an accurate reflection of the Roaring Twenties.
A. A. Milne external image a-a-milne-2.jpg

Milne was a British children's writer. He was born in London, England on January 18 ,1882. Milne only had one child, Christopher Robin. He is most well-known for publishing Winnie the Pooh in 1926. The book featured his only child, Christopher Robin. Out of the characters in Winnie the Pooh, only Rabbit and Owl were fictitious. All the other characters were based off something. For instance, Pooh and the other animals were inspired by his son's stuffed animals. The teddy bear was originally named after their pet swan, Pooh.

The origin of Jazz is traced back to the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. Though 1935 is considered the Big Band era where jazz became invented and most popular, but jazz had been recorded in the 1920’s. In the 1920’s the music of jazz started to become that large band format and started combining elements such as: black spirituals, blues, and European music. In the 1920’s there was also a popularity of hotel bands where many musicians came together to play jazz for the hotel residents or other for people who decided to come in and listen.

Joe “King” Oliver
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy5t7DF4uW4 <-- listen to Joe "King" Oliver- Struggle Buggy

Oliver played the trombone as a child, but he later switched to the cornet. While playing in the band of Edward “Kid” Ory, the famous trombonist, Oliver became known as Joe Oliver “King” of the cornet. Oliver joined Bill Johnson in Chicago in 1919 and soon became in charge of the band. The King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band contained with Oliver playing the cornet, Johnson played the bass, Johnny Dodds the clarinet, and Baby Dodds the drums. Then in 1922, Oliver found a young talented musician by the name of Louis Armstrong, to join the band as second cornetists. With Armstrong, the band became extremely popular and was recorded in 1923. The Band played in Chicago's Lincoln Gardens until 1924. From 1925-1927, Oliver led the Dixie Syncopators at the Plantation Cafe. Because of a terrible tour in 1927, Oliver made the biggest mistake of his career. He was offered a position as performer and band leader in a club in New York. Oliver was not satisfied with the pay check, and had refused to compromise. Because of this, the club hired a young man named Duke Ellington. By 1929, Oliver's failing health, bad investments, and changes in the direction of jazz, led to the end of Oliver's career. Although Joe Oliver died in obscurity, he was a true “King” of the Jazz Age, and his contributions to jazz were unsurpassed in the early 1920s.

Louis Armstrong
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyx6Ke435BE <-- listen to Louis Armstrong's most famous song When the Saints Go Marching In

Louis Armstrong became famous in the 1920s. His mentor had been Joe "King" Oliver. Oliver had often sent Armstrong out on jobs that Joe could not fit into his schedule. In 1919 Oliver went to Chicago, leaving Louis to fill his place in the King Oliver’s Dixie Syncopators. In 1921, Oliver got Armstrong from Chicago and asked Louis to join him in Chicago's Lincoln Gardens. Armstrong felt that New Orleans was his home, but he admired King Oliver too much to reject the offer. Later in life, Armstrong stated, "His (Oliver's) calling for me was the biggest feeling I had musically." In Chicago, Oliver utilized Louis' harmonic talent by improvising a line, and letting Louis complete the melody. This awed jazz enthusiasts and word of Louis' talent spread throughout the city. While King Oliver was Armstrong's mentor, his talent as a soloist dimmed in comparison to Louis'. Louis married for the second time in 1924, to jazz pianist Lil Hardin. She encouraged Louis to break off from Oliver's band in 1924. He accepted a position with Fletcher Henderson, the leader of one of the most prestigious dance halls in New York City. Through this band, Louis was able to directly influence the sound of the dance hall jazz. At the Rosewood Ballroom on Broadway, Armstrong added the classic New Orleans sound to the sophisticated sound of the popular jazz. Amazed by Louis' talent and unique sound, Henderson incorporated Louis' rhythmic improvisation. It was readily apparent that Louis was the best jazz soloist on Broadway. Louis was back in Chicago by 1926. From 1925-1928, Louis Hot Five and Hot seven recordings were made. These works, along with several collaborative recordings with Earl Hines, were Louis most important works of the 1920s. Louis Armstrong had a very long and successful career. He influenced the direction of jazz music and improvisation. Louis Armstrong was the first "super star" of jazz music.

Edward “Kid” Ory
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJvf9vz9HR <-- listen to Spike's Seven Pods of Pepper Orchestra -
Ory's Creole Trombone (1922) Kid Ory was the first great jazz trombonist, and this was in high demand in the 1920s. His New Orleans band, formed in 1912, introduced many young and rising jazz musicians, including: King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, Johnny Dobbs, Sidney Bechet, and many others. Ory brought the New Orleans sound to Los Angeles in 1919. He became the leader of the first African American band to record New Orleans jazz music in 1922. This recording included "Ory's Creole Trombone and Society Blues." Ory joined King Oliver's Dixie Syncopators in Chicago in 1925 and played with him until 1927. Kid Ory played on many of the early recordings of King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, and Jelly Roll Morton, and his mastery of the trombone. He went on to have an extremely successful career, not retiring until 1966.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~asi/musi212/brandi/bartist.html for more info of other jazz musicians.

Art and Architecture
Early 1900s, a lot of the Western artists disapproved of traditional styles. Instead of trying to reproduce the real world, artists explored other dimensions of color, line, and shape. Henri Matisse was a french painter who was known for his use of color and his fluid and original brush strokes. He produced combinations of bold, wild strokes of color and odd distortions to produce works of strong emotion. Henri Matisse and other fellow artists angered many people with his works, and he was initially labelled as a Fauve. By the 1920s, however, Matisse was increasingly seen as an upholder of the classical tradition of French painting.His mastery of the expressive language of color and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern arts.
 Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
While Henri Matisse continued his fauvist style, other artists explored styles based on new ideas. Before World War I, the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso and the French artist Georges Braque created a revolutionary new style called cubism. Cubism is an early 20th century art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpting, and inspired related movements in music, literature, and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. Cubists painted three-dimensional objects as complex patterns of angles and planes, as if they were composed of fragment parts. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up, and reassembled in an abstracted form, rather than of depicting objects from one viewpoint. The artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.
Women with the Hat
Women with the Hat

Later, the Russian Vasily Kandinsky and the Swiss Paul Klee moved even further away from representing reality. Their artwork was abstract. Abstract is art work composed of only lines, colors, and shapes, sometimes with no recognizable subject matter at all. During and after the war, the Dada movement flourished onto the art world. Dadaist rejected all traditional conventions and believed that there was no sense or real truth in the world. Paintings and sculptures by Jean Arp and Max Ernst were wanted to shock and disturb people who saw their works. Other dadaist artists created collages, photo montages, or sculptures made of objects they found abandoned or thrown away. Cubism and Dada were both able to inspire surrealism. Surrealism is a movement that attempted to portray the workings of the unconscious mind. Surrealism rejected rational thought, which had produced the horrors of World War I, in favor of irrational or unconscious ideas. Salvador Dali was a Spanish surrealist. Dali used images of melting clocks and burning giraffes to suggest the chaotic dream state described by Freud.
Architects also rejected classical traditions and developed new styles to match a new world. The famous Bauhaus school in Germany influenced architecture by blending science and technology with design. Bauhaus buildings feature glass, steel, and concrete, but it has little ornamentation. Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect. He said that the function of a building should determine its form. He used materials and forms that fit a buildings's environment.

Scientific Theories
In the Early 1900s, the Polish-born French scientist, Marie Curie, found out that the atoms made up of certain elements. As scientists studied radioactivity more, they discovered that it can change atoms of one element into atoms of another. Such findings proved that atoms are not solid and indivisible. In 1906 and 1916, the German physicist, Albert Einstein introduced his theories of relativity. Einstein argued that measurements of space and time are not absolute but are determined by the relative position of the observer. Albert Einstein's theories brought up questions about Newtonian science. Newtonian science compares the universe to a machine operating according to absolute laws. In 1934, Enrico Fermi, an Italian physicist, and other scientists around the world discovered atomic fission. Atomic fission is the splitting of the nuclei of atoms in two. This splitting creates a huge burst of energy. In the 1940s, Fermi, along with American physicists J Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller, would use this discovery to create the devastating atomic bomb. In the postwar years, many scientists came to accept the theories of relativity to the general public, but Einstein's ideas were difficult to grasp and understand. His theories seemed to further reinforce the unsettling sense of a universe whirling beyond the understanding of human reason.
The Scottish scientist, Alexander Fleming, made a different type of scientific discovery, in 1928. He accidentally discovered a type of nontoxic mold that kills bacteria. He called this mold penicillin. Later, other scientists used Alexander Fleming's work to develop antibiotics, which are now used all over the world today to treat infections.
Sigmund Freud is an Austrian physician. He also challenged faith in reason. Freud thought that the subconscious mind drives much of human behavior. He said that learned social values like morality and reason help people to control powerful urges. An individual, however, feels constant tension between repressed drives and social training. Freud argued that this tension may cause psychological or physical illness. Freud pioneered psychoanalysis. This is a method of studying how the mind works and treating mental disorders. Although many of his theories have been discredited, it is said that Freud's hypothesizes have had a huge impact far beyond medicine.
Science in the 1920sFlappersRoaring Twenties


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