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  1. page Battle of El Alamein (2A) edited ... The Second Battle of El Alamein was fought between the British Eighth Army and the German Army…
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    The Second Battle of El Alamein was fought between the British Eighth Army and the German Army. The British Army was led by Bernard Law Montgomery and the Germans were led by General Erwin Rommel. It was fought from October 23 to November 5, 1942. The Battle of El Alamein turned the tide in favor of the Allies in World War II.
    Bernard Law Montgomery (British)
    {montgomery.jpg}
    Bernard Law Montgomery was born on November 17, 1887. He was born in London, England. He went to St. Pauls School and Royal Military Academy.Montgomery fought in France, as a young officer, during World War I. He was remembered for dispatches for gallantry in action. After the war, he was promoted and received various commands in both Britain and India.
    {Bernard_Law_Montgomery.jpg}
    During World War II, he was an outstanding commander and hero of the British people. In 1939, Montgomery was a major general in command of the 3rd Division. The division moved to France and combined with the British Expeditionary Force, which they fought in the “Phony War.” In the spring of 1940, Montgomery had participated in a withdrawal at Dunkirk. Montgomery became in charge of the 5th Corps, the 12th Corps, and the South East Command over the years. In August in the year of 1942 Winston Churchill appointed him commander of the British Eighth Army in North Africa where Montgomery made Erwin Rommel retreat after the Battle of El Alamein. This position led to the beginning of Bernard Law Montgomery’s rise to power. Montgomery reviewed the plan for the Normandy Invasion and commanded all ground forces in the initial stages of the invasion. Bernard Law Montgomery died in 1976. Bernard Law Montgomery was a general, writer, and government official.
    General Erwin Rommel (German)
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    Afrika Corps. {rommel.png}
    His father was a professor and his mother was Helene von Luz. He considered becoming an engineer, but his father insisted he join the 124th Wurttemberg Infantry Regiment in 1910. He went to Officer Cadet School. He met his wife, Lucia Mollin, who he married on November 27, 1916.
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    his surprise attacks.attac {rommel 2.jpg} ks. He was
    In early 1944, Rommel was to protect the French Channel coast’s defense against an Allied invasion. Rommel began to doubt Germany’s reason to participate in the war. He was told by a group of friends that he should lead the nation once Hitler was overthrown, unaware that they were planning to assassinate Hitler. Soon enough, the men attempted to assassinate Hitler. Rommel’s contact with the men was revealed and the people thought he was part of the plan. Rommel was offered to take poison instead of going to a trial. Rommel drank the poison on October 4, 1944, in Herrlingen, Germany.
    The Second Battle of El Alamein
    The Second Battle of El Alamein was fought from October 23, 1942 until November 5, 1942. The Battle of El Alamein was fought in the deserts of North Africa. It was primarily fought between the British general, Montgomery, and the German general, Rommel. This battle was a major lost to the Germans, allowing the British to stall the Axis powers. The Battle of El Alamein was an important turning point for the Allies and it turned the tide in favor of the Allies.
    After Rommel’s victory at the Battle of Gazala, his army pressed British forces back across North Africa. Retreating to within 50 miles of Alexandria, General Claude Auchinleck was able to stop the Italo-German offensive at El Alamein in July. The El Alamein line ran 40 miles from the coast to the Quattara Depression. While both sides paused to rebuild their forces, Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived in Cairo and decided to take charge.
    {250px-El_Alamein_1942_-_British_infantry.jpg}
    Churchill replaced Auchinleck with General Sir Harold Alexander, while the 8th Army was given to Lieutenant General William Gott. Before Gott could take command, he was killed when the Luftwaffe shot down his transport. As a result, Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery took command of the 8th Army. Moving forward, Rommel attacked Montgomery's lines at the Battle of Alam Halfa but was a failure.
    Montgomery carefully planned his assault because of Rommel’s extensive defense. He instituted Operation Lightfoot, which called for infantry to advance across the minefields, so that engineers could open two more routes through for armor. The new offensive called for infantry to advance across the minefields (Operation Lightfoot) which would allow engineers to open two routes through for the armor. On the other hand, Rommel's men were suffering from a severe lack of supplies and fuel. With the German war materials going to the Eastern Front, Rommel was forced to rely solely on captured Allied supplies. Rommel took leave to Germany in September, due to health issues.
    On the night of October 23, 1942, Montgomery began to attack Axis lines. First, was a heavy 5-hour bombardment, followed by, 4 infantry divisions advancing over the mines with the engineers working behind them. By 2:00 AM they began to advance, but slowed down as traffic jams occurred. The attack was supported by diversionary attacks to the south as well. The German defense had already lost Rommel, temporary, and was replaced by Lieutenant General Georg Stumme, who died of a heart attack.
    Taking control of the situation, Major-General Ritter von Thoma developed counterattacks against the British infantry. Having opened a six mile wide and five mile deep inroad into Rommel's position, Montgomery began shifting forces north. When Rommel returned he had found his army had only three days of fuel remaining.
    {desert-warfare.jpg}
    On November 1, Rommel began to see that they lost the battle and began planning a retreat 50 miles west to Fuka. On November 2, Montgomery launched Operation Supercharge with the goal of forcing the battle into the open and reaching Tel el Aqqaqir. Attacking behind the artillery barrage, forced Rommel to commit his armored reserves. This resulted in a tank battle, where the Axis lost over 100 tanks.
    Rommel saw that it was hopeless to win and contacted Hitler and asked for permission to withdraw. Hitler denied the request. Rommel found that fewer than 50 tanks remained. These were soon destroyed by British attacks. As Montgomery continued to attack, entire Axis units were overrun and destroyed. Left with no choice, Rommel ordered his remaining men to begin retreating west.
    On November 4, Montgomery launched his final assaults clearing the Axis lines and reaching open desert. Lacking sufficient transportation, Rommel was forced to abandon many of his Italian infantry divisions. As a result, four Italian divisions effectively ceased to exist.
    {el-alamein-the-soldiers-s-007.jpg}
    The Second Battle of El Alamein cost Rommel around 2,349 killed, 5,486 wounded, and 30,121 captured. In addition, his armored units effectively ceased to exist as a fighting force. For Montgomery, the fighting resulted in 2,350 killed, 8,950 wounded, and 2,260 missing, as well as around 200 tanks permanently lost. The Second Battle of El Alamein turned the tide in North Africa in favor of the Allies. Montgomery drove Rommel back to El Agheila in Libya. Montgomery paused to rest and rebuild his supply lines. He continued to attack in mid-December and pressed Rommel into retreating again. British forces were joined in North Africa by American troops, who had landed in Algeria and Morocco. Allied forces succeeded in evicting the Axis from North Africa on May 13, 1943.
    {alamein-animated.gif}
    Why was the Battle of El Alamein a Turning Point in the War?
    The Second Battle of El Alamein was a turning point in the war, because it drove all Axis forces from North Africa and allowed the Allies access to the oil fields. This was a major success because it prevented the Axis on replenishing their resources because they were severely low on fuel and supplies.The Second Battle of El Alamein took place over 20 days from October 23rd – November 11th, 1942 near the Egyptian coastal city of El Alamein, and the Allies' victory marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. It followed the First Battle of El Alamein, which had stalled the Axis advance into Egypt. It ended a long fight in the Western Desert. Also, it was the only great land battle won by the British and Commonwealth forces without direct American participation, which eventually persuaded the French to start cooperating in the North Africa Campaign.
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  7. page Battle of El Alamein (2A) edited The Second Battle of El AlameinBy: Gabby Shumate, Hannah Bruce, MacKenzie Stovall, Kelley Rigdon, a…
    The Second Battle of El AlameinBy: Gabby Shumate, Hannah Bruce, MacKenzie Stovall, Kelley Rigdon, and Mariah Geisen
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    the tide in in favor
    Bernard Law Montgomery (British)
    Bernard Law Montgomery was born on November 17, 1887. He was born in London, England. He went to St. Pauls School and Royal Military Academy.Montgomery fought in France, as a young officer, during World War I. He was remembered for dispatches for gallantry in action. After the war, he was promoted and received various commands in both Britain and India.
    During World War II, he was an outstanding commander and hero of the British people. In 1939, Montgomery was a major general in command of the 3rd Division. The division moved to France and combined with the British Expeditionary Force, which they fought in the “Phony War.” In the spring of 1940, Montgomery had participated in a withdrawal at Dunkirk. Montgomery became in charge of the 5th Corps, the 12th Corps, and the South East Command over the years. In August in the year of 1942 Winston Churchill appointed him commander of the British Eighth Army in North Africa where Montgomery made Erwin Rommel retreat after the Battle of El Alamein. This position led to the beginning of Bernard Law Montgomery’s rise to power. Montgomery reviewed the plan for the Normandy Invasion and commanded all ground forces in the initial stages of the invasion. Bernard Law Montgomery died in 1976. Bernard Law Montgomery was a general, writer, and government official.
    General Erwin Rommel (German)
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    in 1891.He detinguisheddistinguished himself in
    His father was a professor and his mother was Helene von Luz. He considered becoming an engineer, but his father insisted he join the 124th Wurttemberg Infantry Regiment in 1910. He went to Officer Cadet School. He met his wife, Lucia Mollin, who he married on November 27, 1916.
    During WWII, he was appointed to lead the German troops, Afrika Korps, in North Africa. When Italy loses to British troops, Hitler sends Rommel to Libya. Soon after, Rommel was promoted to field marshal by Hitler. Rommel had continued success and earned the nickname “Desert Fox”, for his surprise attacks. He was popular to the Arab people and as a countryman, he was known as “the People’s Marshal”. Rommel was one of Hitler’s most successful generals and one of Germany’s most popular military leaders.
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    the people thoughthought he was
    The Second Battle of El Alamein
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    Alamein was aan important turning
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    and it turnturned the tide
    After Rommel’s victory at the Battle of Gazala, his army pressed British forces back across North Africa. Retreating to within 50 miles of Alexandria, General Claude Auchinleck was able to stop the Italo-German offensive at El Alamein in July. The El Alamein line ran 40 miles from the coast to the Quattara Depression. While both sides paused to rebuild their forces, Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived in Cairo and decided to take charge.
    Churchill replaced Auchinleck with General Sir Harold Alexander, while the 8th Army was given to Lieutenant General William Gott. Before Gott could take command, he was killed when the Luftwaffe shot down his transport. As a result, Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery took command of the 8th Army. Moving forward, Rommel attacked Montgomery's lines at the Battle of Alam Halfa but was a failure.
    ...
    On the night of October 23, 1942, Montgomery began to attack Axis lines. First, was a heavy 5-hour bombardment, followed by, 4 infantry divisions advancing over the mines with the engineers working behind them. By 2:00 AM they began to advance, but slowed down as traffic jams occurred. The attack was supported by diversionary attacks to the south as well. The German defense had already lost Rommel, temporary, and was replaced by Lieutenant General Georg Stumme, who died of a heart attack.
    Taking control of the situation, Major-General Ritter von Thoma developed counterattacks against the British infantry. Having opened a six mile wide and five mile deep inroad into Rommel's position, Montgomery began shifting forces north. When Rommel returned he had found his army had only three days of fuel remaining.
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    lost the battlea ndbattle and began planning
    Rommel saw that it was hopeless to win and contacted Hitler and asked for permission to withdraw. Hitler denied the request. Rommel found that fewer than 50 tanks remained. These were soon destroyed by British attacks. As Montgomery continued to attack, entire Axis units were overrun and destroyed. Left with no choice, Rommel ordered his remaining men to begin retreating west.
    On November 4, Montgomery launched his final assaults clearing the Axis lines and reaching open desert. Lacking sufficient transportation, Rommel was forced to abandon many of his Italian infantry divisions. As a result, four Italian divisions effectively ceased to exist.
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    The Second Battle of El Alamein
    Axis Plan in the Battle of El Alamein
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    of the BattlwBattle of El
    Works Citied
    "Erwin Rommel." 2013. The Biography Channel website. Apr 30 2013, 05:21 [[/people/erwin-rommel-39971|http://www.biography.com/people/erwin-rommel-39971]].
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